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Profile of Mizoram


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Profile of Mizoram

Mizoram, situated in the high hills of the North-East Corner of India is a small state endowed with endless variety of landscape, hilly terrains, meandering streams, rich wealth of flora and fauna and many more to choose from. This tiny land achieved its statehood and became the 23rd state of India only on 20 Feb, 1987.


Sandwiched between Myanmar in the east and south and Bangladesh in the west, Mizoram enjoys an area of great strategic importance in the north-eastern corner of India. Aizwal, the capital of the state is perched along a ridge and is home of the Mizo tribes. The state is known all over the world for its kind-hearted and hospitable people.

The state of Mizoram has rich cultural heritage which reflects in its traditions and customs. There are many tribes as Pawi and Dimasa residing in the state. The people of Mizoram are very culturally inclined. They celebrate a number of festivals like the Mim Kut, Chapchar Kut, and Pawl Kut in the state. They are also interested in music and various dance forms like the Khuallam, Cheraw and Chhieh Lam. The cultural essence of Mizoram is also reflected in the different cuisine types which are prepared by the local people.

Mizoram is gifted with vast forests resources including a variety of flora and fauna. It is a paradise for nature lovers, botanists, environmentalists, conservationists and trekkers. The state is abundant with resources, both mineral resources and forest resources. There are many valleys and rivers throughout the state.

Mizoram has a rich historical entity into its formation with diverse cultures, art & craft forms, dance forms and developed economical life.

History of Mizoram

The history of Mizoram dates back to early 16th century when the tribes known as Mizos were migrated from China and settled in the Shan State. They moved on to Kabaw Valley to Khampat and then to the Chin Hills in the middle of this century. The earliest Mizos who migrated to India were known as Kukis and the second batch of immigrants were called as New Kukis.

history of mizoram

The history of Mizoram between 18th and 19th century is marked by many instances of tribal raids and retaliatory expeditions of security. Mizo Hills were formally declared as part of the British-India by a proclamation in 1895. North and south hills were united into Lushai Hills district in 1898 with Aizawl as its headquarters.

The British continued to rule over the tribal dominated area of Assam from 1919 and during this period Lushai Hills along with some other hill districts was declared a Backward Tract under government of India Act. The tribal districts of Assam including Lushai Hills were declared Excluded Area in 1935.

During British period the political development in the state became significant and the first political party i.e. Mizo Common People's Union was formed on 9th April 1946. The party was later rechristened as Mizo Union. With India’s independence in 1947, the constituent assembly set up an advisory committee to entertain the matters related to minorities and the tribals of the north eastern region. A sub-committee, under the chairmanship of Gopinath Bordoloi was formed to advise the Constituent Assembly on the tribal affairs in the North East.

Following the Bordoloi Sub-Committee's suggestion, a certain amount of autonomy was accepted by the Government and enshrined in the Six Schedule of the constitution. The Lushai Hills Autonomous District Council came into being in 1952 followed by the formation of these bodies led to the abolition of chieftainship in the Mizo society.

Timeline of Mizoram History:   

1850s – Earliest recorded history about Mizoram from British military documentaries.

1895 – Mizo Hills declared as part of the British-India by a proclamation

1935 – Lushai Hills declared as an excluded area

1955 – Mizo cultural society was formed

1959 – Mizo Hills devastated by a great famine known as the Mautam Famine

1947 – Became Lushia Hills district under the Govt. of Assam

1871 – Massive raid took place, Demand to make Mizoram an independent state

1972 – Became a Union Territory as Mizoram

1986 – Became a full fledged federal state of Indian Union

The autonomy however met the aspirations of the Mizos only partially. Representatives of the District Council and the Mizo Union pleaded with the States Reorganization Commission (SRC) in 1954 for integrated the Mizo-dominated areas of Tripura and Manipur with their District Council in Assam.

The Mizo tribal leaders were not happy with the SRC recommendations. They raised demand for a separate state comprising of all hill districts of Assam. They met in Aizwal in 1955 and formed a new political party, Eastern India Union (EITU). The protests continued for over three decades and finally the hill problems were realized by the government of India. Mizoram was given a full fledged status of a state only on 20 Feb, 1987 by an amendment in the constitution of India.

Map of MizoramGeography of Mizoram

The state of Mizoram covers an area of 21,087 sq kms. Mizoram is shares its geographical boundaries with Assam, Manipur and Tripura that extends over 123 kms, 95 kms and 66 kms respectively. It has a total of 630 miles of international border with Myanmar and Bangladesh.

The terrain of Mizoram is hilly and there are a number of valleys, rivers and lakes in the state. It has the most variegated hilly terrain in the northeastern part of India. There are many as 21 hill ranges in the state with peaks ranging different heights. The hill ranges are rugged and runs in ridges from north to south. The hills have an average height of around 900 meters, the highest point being the Phawngpui (Blue Mountain) at an altitude of 2165 meters above sea level. The average height of the hills in the west is about 1000 meters and that on the east are 1300 meters.

Mizoram is a city of wilderness filled with lakes and rivers and hills and forests. The hills and Mizoram Wildlifemountain ranges in Mizoram state are Phawngpui Tlang also famously known as the Blue Mountain, Hmuifang with an elevation of 1619 meters and Reiek at a height of 1548 meters. Rivers in Mizoram are Chimtuipui River, Tlawng, Tutis, Tuirial and Tuivawl and lakes are Palak Dil, Tam Dil and Rih Dil.

Apart from hills and mountain ranges, Mizoram also has a waterfall which is famed by the name of Vantawng Falls, located in the district of Serchhip. Wildlife sanctuaries are found in abundance in Mizoram. Some of the sanctuaries and national parks here that must be visited on a visit to Mizoram are Dampa Tiger reserve, Thorangtlang Wildlife Sanctuary, Lengteng Wildlife Sanctuary, Tawi Wildlife Sanctuary, Khawnglung Wildlife Sanctuary, Ngenpui Wildlife Sanctuary, Blue Mountain National Park and Murlen National Park.

There are a number of rivers which flow through the state. The biggest river in Mizoram is Chhimtuipui, which is also known as Kaladan (or Koldoyne). It originates in Myanmar and flows through the southern districts of Saiha and Lawngtlai of Mizoram. Other rivers like the Tlawng, Tut, Tuirial; Tuivawl flows through the northern part and join the Barak in Cachar.

The state of Mizoram is also dotted with lakes in different parts. The Palak Lake is the biggest lake in Mizoram with an area of 30 hectares. It is situated in Saiha district and is believed that it was formed as a result of an earthquake.

Lakes in MizoramAnother lake, the Tamdil Lake is a natural lake situated 85 kms from state capital Aizawl. Mizoram is located in the highest zone 5 for earthquakes. The folded structure of the Mizoram ranges is located at the junction of two moving tectonic plates.

Mineral Resources in Mizoram

The main mineral of Mizoram is a hard rock of the period of the tertiary formation. This product is very important for road construction work and building materials. Apart from these, several other minor minerals are available in different places.

Forest and Wild Life in MizoramForests of Mizoram

About 87% of the entire state is covered by forests in Mizoram calculating a total coverage of around 18,338 sq.km. 68% of the geographical area is dense forest whereas 20% is open forest. There are mainly three types of forests in Mizoram. They are Sub tropical forest, Semi-evergreen forests and Sub-montane tropical forests. Different flora and fauna can be found in Mizoram. Around 22 species of Bamboo have been found out to exist in Mizoram and above 400 medicinal plants. The amount of the total forest of Mizoram has been calculated to an amount of Rs. 125.85 lakhs.

Industrial Resources in Mizoram

Cottage industry is a boom in the state with people producing different art and crafts. Mizo people are expert in weaving, making bamboo and handicraft products. Apart from the weaving and handicraft industry, Mizoram also have ginger and food processing plants. Furthermore, Zoram Industrial development corporation (ZIDCO), has taken initiatives to start with more industries in the state.

Initiatives are also being taken in order to develop industries based on agro-horticultural products. Apart from ginger, maize and other fruit juice plants, Mizoram also has the potential to set up potential projects which are based on locally produced coffee, tea, chillies, milk,etc. The state government has also made a lot of developments in the sericulture department of Mizoram. The sericulture sector of the state has also made tremendous all round development for the rural economy.

Important Facts and Figures about state Mizoram:

Area : 21,087 sq. km
Latitude : 210 58'& 240 35'N
Longitude : 920 15'& 930 29'E
Date of Formation : 20 Feb, 1987
Capital : Aizawl
No. of Districts : 8
No. of Lok Sabha seats : 1
No. of Rajya Sabha seats: 1
No. of Vidhan Sabha seats: 40
No. of Sub-divisions: 23
No. of blocks: 22
No.of villages: 817
No. of towns: 22
Largest City: Aizawl
Major Cities: Aizawl, Champhai, Thenzawl, Lunglei, Kolasib, Vairengte, Mamit, Serchhip, Saiha
Major River: Chhimtuipui
Major Festivals: Mim Kut, Pawl Kut, Chapchar Kut, Thalfavang Kut, Christmas
Population : 1,091,014
PopulationDensity: 52 Per Sq. Km
Malepopulation: 4, 59,783
Femalepopulation : 4, 31,275
Sex Ratio: 938 female per 1000 male
Literacy rate: 91.58%
Per Capita Income: Rs.10, 833
Language (s): Mizo,English
Religions : Christianity, Hinduism
Average Rainfall: 250 cm per annum
Temperature: 11-21oC in winter; 20-30oC in summer

Important Rivers of Mizoram

Mizoram is on of the ‘Seven Sister’ states of Northeast India. It is situated on the extreme south of Northeastern India. The terrain of Manipur is hilly and there are a number of valleys, rivers and lakes in the state. It has the most variegated hilly terrain in the northeastern part of India. There are a number of rivers which flow through the state. Some of the rivers which are majorly part of the country of Bangladesh but passes through the state of Mizoram also are Thega River and the Surma-Meghna river system (Barak River).

Tiau River:

This river flows through the district and forms a boundary between India and Myanmar. It is a main place for crossing the borders. This river valley is now developed into a commercial centre where one can find all sorts of imported goods.

Rivers in MioramTlawng River:

This is one of the important rivers in Mizoram. It is also known as Dhaleswari or Katakha. This river passes through the Aizawl district and flanks the eastern side of the state capital city Aizawl. The Tamdil Lake located on the banks of this river is an ideal spot for picnicking.

Barak RiverBarak River:

This river originates from state of Manipur and flows west through Manipur and then southwest before entering Mizoram. In Mizoram, the Barak flows south west and then bends abruptly north when it is joined by a north flowing stream and then it enters the state of Assam.  This river further in its course joins the Brahmaputra and enters Bangladesh before merging with the Bay of Bengal.

Important rivers in MizoramKaladan River:

This is a river originating in Myanmar and forms an international border between India and Myanmar. The river flows through Myanmar and is joined by other rivers on its way before it enters Mizoram. It is called Boinu in Myanmar and in Mizoram it is known as Kaladan (or Kolodyne). It reaches the northern most point of Mizoram, and then turns south west and is joined by the Tuichong River on the right. The river then turns south and is joined from the right by the Mat River and continues south where it joins Kawthingdeng river before it finally enter into Myanmar again.

Rivers in MizoramKarnaphuli River:

This river originates from the Lushai hills in Mizoram and flows into the country of Bangladesh before emptying itself in the Bay of Bengal.

Other rivers and tributaries which flow through the state of Mizoram include Tuichong River, Chhimtuipui River, Ngengpui River, Chawngte River, Tuiphal River, Mat River and Kawrthingdeng River.

Climate of Mizoram

Climate of Mizoram

The climate of Mizoram is very pleasant and moderate. The winters and summers are both tolerable. The winters are devoid of snow even in the highest of the hills, though drops of dew and frost appear here and there. The minimum temperature in the winters is 9 degree to 20 degree whereas the maximum not increasing above 30 degree. The temperature varies between 20ºC and 30ºC during summers and between 11ºC and 21ºC in winters.

Winters start from November onwards and end only in around February. Mizoram  receives rain from June to August. The average rainfall in Mizoram is around 208 cm. The best time to visit Mizoram is between September and April when the skies stay clear and one can have beautiful of the landscapes even from far away.

Rainy season starts from June and continues till the end of August. The rainfall is evenly distributed throughout the state. Mizoram state gets an annual average rainfall of about 3,000 mm. One special feature of the climate of Mizoram is that it faces violent storms during March-April.

Economy of MizoramEconomy of Mizoram

The economy of Mizoram is totally agriculture based. Mizoram is famous for its fibreless ginger. Crops which have abundant production here are maize, mustard, sugarcane, potatoes and sesame.

Apart from the agriculture, art and craft also has a major hand in the economy. Basketry, printing press, sericulture, brick making and saw mills are other fields of the state that helps in the economy of the state. The economy of Mizoram is one of the highest in India, with a per capita income of Rs. 50,021. During the 11th Five year plan (2007-2012), Mizoram had the second highest Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) growth in the entire North-East India.

During the 10th Five year plan, on the other hand, Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP) of Mizoram grew at 5.7 % whereas it was expected only 5.3% raise. The tertiary sectors of services of Mizoram also continued to contribute towards the GSDP with its share being between 58% to 60% since the past decade.

Agriculture of Mizoram

Agriculture in Mizoram

Mizoram's economy is largely agrarian with more than 70% of the total workforce engaged in farming and cultivation. The people of rural villages practice Jhum cultivation. The climatic condition of the state is also favourable for growing various types of crops including maize, paddy, pulses, sugarcane etc. The natural features and resources also offer opportunities for growing a variety of horticultural crops. These crops in Mizoram include chilly, ginger, turmeric, potato, tobacco, vegetables, banana, pineapples and other important crops.

Industries of Mizoram

Cottage industry and other small-scale industries in Mizoram play important roles in the state's economy. There has not been any significant industrial development in the state due to lack of raw materials. But there is scope of industrial development from forests products.

The state of Mizoram has very little deposit of mines or minerals. Only hard rock of tertiary formation is available and is utilized as building materials and road construction work. Thrust areas for industrial development:
  • BambooIndustries in Mizoram
  • Food processing
  • Hand looms & handicrafts
  • Mines & minerals
  • Tourism

Agriculture and Horticulture Resources in Mizoram

Agriculture occupies a very important place in the economy of Mizoram. Of the total population, 70% of the Mizo people are involved in agriculture. Jhum cultivation is followed by the people here with total dedication. Climatic conditions of the state are also favourable for jhum cultivation. Its location in and various soil types make it a favourable place for agricultural activities, along with well distributed rainfall of 1900mm to 3000mm.

Paddy is the primary food crop of the state and the primary fruits are Mandarin orange, grapes, papaya, guava, avocado, passion fruit. The mild climate of the region has the advantage of having flowers in the place almost throughout the entire year. Anthurium, roses, bird of paradise, chrysanthemum, etc. are some of the flowers that grow in here.

Culture of Mizoram

The state of Mizoram, located in the extreme southernmost part of Northeast India is a beautiful state with diverse mix of different tribes and cultures residing together. The is a beautiful state filled with river valleys and blue daunting peaks. The diversity of ethnic groups, languages and religion is seen all over the state.

There are different tribes and tribal culture in Mizoram including the Pawis and Dimasa tribes. The Pawi community people mostly reside in the southern part of Mizoram.

mizo tribes

The cuisine of Mizoram is mainly non vegetarian served in fresh green banana leaves. The meals taken are less spicy comparatively to other region food types. The core dish of the Mizos consists of non-vegetarian essence and vegetables are essential part of the cuisine. There is use of spices of garlic, chili and ginger and intake of pork. Some of the popular traditional dishes of Mizoram include Bai, Vawksa Rep, Arsa Buhchiar and Sawchair.

All important festivals of India are celebrated in Mizoram. The names of all their festivals have the term ‘kut’ in the end, which means ‘festival’. Apart from these there are some regional festivals of Mizoram which include Mim Kut, Pawl Kut, Chapar Kut and Thalfavang Kut. 

The dances of Mizoram are traditional celebrating different occasions of Mizoram. These dances are accompanied by chanting, traditional musical instruments. Some of the dance forms of Mizoram include Cheraw, Khuallam, Sarlamkai/Solakia, Chailam, Chawnglaizawn, Chheihlam, Zangtalam and Tlanglam.

Tribes in Mizoram

Although it can’t be accurately deduced, it is believed by the scholars and alike that the area of the present Mizoram was originally inhabited by the Mongoloid and other tribal groups who had migrated from China and other northern countries.

Dance in Mizo

The major parts of the population of Mizoram consist of the ethnic tribes and they are interlinked by means of cultural or linguistic origins. The tribal culture of Mizoram and these ethnic groups of people as a whole are known as Mizos (Mi means ‘people’ and Zo means ‘hill’). The tribal people of Mizoram may be summed up into four kinds of tribal communities - the Chakma Tribes, Pawi tribes, Ralte tribes and the Kuki tribes.

There is a striking similarity in the physical features of these groups of people. Moreover the tribes of Mizoram are simple, happy, literate, liberal, generous, hospitable and social by nature. They cherish the gift of friendship very well and like to live free.

There are around eighty thousand people in Mizoram that belong to the Chakma tribes which is the most important group in the area. Their language and diction is quite similar to that of Bengali. Besides the Chakma tribes, the other tribes are also significant as well. This tribe is mostly found in Southeastern hills in Mizoram. The Chakma tribes are divided into various clans.

kut in mizoram

The Mizos are another important tribe in Mizoram. The villagers of this tribe reside on top of hills. This tribe is divided into five major and eleven minor sub-tribes. Cultivation is the major occupation of this tribe. Apart from jhum cultivation they also cultivate cash crops, sugarcane and tobacco. Chapchar Kut and Pavlkut are the major festivals along with Creraw and Khullam are the most colourful dances of this state.

The Pawi communities of Mizoram are mostly found in the south and southeastern part of this state. This tribe call themselves as Lai, who has migrated from Chin Hills of Burma. The Pawis are divided into various clans. They grow maize and millet. Their language is Lai language and speaks Mizo language.

The Dimasas also called as Dimasa-Kacharis are one of the ancient kachari tribes in Mizoram. Now-a-days they mostly reside in Dima Hasao district of Assam. Bishu is the important festival of this tribe that celebrated after competitions of harvest. Apart from Bishu they also perform various rituals and dances.

Cuisine of Mizoram

The cuisine of Mizoram offers mainly non vegetarian dishes served in fresh green banana leaves. The meals taken by the people of Mizoram are less spicy comparatively to other region food types. The core dish of the Mizos consists of non-vegetarian essence. Vegetables are essential part of the cuisine, and inevitable but non-vegetarian items are the mizo people’s favorite, without which they tend not to have any meal.

The people use mustard oil for preparation of the dishes and there is also use of spices of garlic, chili and ginger. Some of the popular traditional dishes of Mizoram include Bai which is a boiled dish of pork, spinach and bamboo shoot; Vawksa Rep which is smoked pork dish and Arsa Buhchiar and Sawchair.
Mizo Cuisine
The Mizoram cuisine offers mainly non vegetarian dishes served in fresh green banana leaves. The meals are less spicy comparatively to other region food types and are highly nutritious. The core dish of the Mizos consists of non-vegetarian essence. Vegetables are essential part of the cuisine, and inevitable but non-vegetarian items are the Mizo people’s favorite, without which they tend not to have any meal.

Some of the popular Mizo cuisines are Bai, a boiled dish consisting of pork, spinach and bamboo shoots, Vawksa Rep or smoked pork is a dish that is loved by not only the Mizo habitants, which is made of pork cubes, flavored with herbs  but also all food lovers, saw chair is another item prepared from rice and pork/chicken.

Another famous Mizo cuisine is Arsa Buhchiar, where a whole chicken is roasted in open fire and then cooked by combining it with sticky rice and other herbs. Misa Maas poora is a shrimp special, paanch phoron torkari is another delicacy. There is another dish called Sawchair made of rice cooked with pork or chicken. The locally made wine is enjoyed by both men and women. "Zu" (tea) is a popular drink. Both men and women are fond of smoking.

NGOs in Mizoram

The NGOs in Mizoram play a crucial role along with the government to make Mizoram a better place. There are NGOs that work for the upliftment of the women, educates children and also works for the welfare of the youth and elderly.

Endangered Species Protection Group

Aim: To reduce pollution, protect ecosystem, protection of the endangered species of flora and fauna and build capacity for environmental management.
Phone: 0389-2324483

Zo Eden
Aim: Creating food self reliance in Mizoram.
Phone: 0389-2317687

Central Young Mizo Association
Aim: Creating health awareness, drugs de-addiction, project planning and vocational skills.
Phone: 0389-2326973

Ferrando Integrated Women Development Centre

Aim: Upliftment of women
Phone: 0389-2362336

NGOs in Lunglei:

The Link Centre

Aim: To develop the youths in all aspects of life- health, environment, education, social and economics through imparting trainings, workshops, awareness drives, exposure programmes etc.
Phone: 0372-2322439

Mizoram Farmers Federation
Aim: To make the agriculture community in the NE India with special focus to Mizoram.
Phone: 0372-2342377

Learners Educational Society
Aim: to upgrade the quality of education to complete the counterpart in this global age.
Phone: 0372-2325666

Help Life Foundation
Aim: Upliftment of needy through community development and micro finance.
Phone: 0372-2325817

A few other NGOs in Mizoram are as follows:
  • Assitej India    
  • Association For Environment Preservation    
  • Bm Infrastructures    
  • Centre For Environment Protection    
  • Centre For Peace And Development    
  • Chawngtlai Br Yma Library    
  • Cod Nerc    
  • Cp Multipurpose Society    
  • Do Re Mi Drama And Cultural Club
  • Gan Sabra Society    
  • Goodwill Foundation    
  • Holy Heart Association    
  • Lawngtlai Town Planning And Development Society    
  • League Of Environmental Citizens    
  • Living Hope Ministry    
  • Mizo Hmeichhe Insuihkhawm Pawl    
  • Mizoram Drama Organisation    
  • Mizoram Entrepreneurship Network    
  • Mizoram Forest Produce Marketing Agency    
  • Mizoram Hindi Prachar Sabha    
  • Mizoram Hindi Vikas Kendra    
  • Mizoram Road Transport Union    
  • Montfort Educational Development Society    
  • New Age Society    
  • New Horizon    
  • New Life Charity Society    
  • Open Doors    
  • Paite Students Federation    
  • Presbyterian Hospital    
  • Prism    
  • S H A D E    
  • Samaritan Society Of Mizoram    
  • Shalom
  • Social Guidance Agency
  • Spastic Society Of Mizoram    
  • Spastic Society Of Mizoram    
  • Study Forum    
  • The Lai Cultural Preservation And Promotion Society    
  • The User Network Of Mizoram    
  • Thutak Nunpuitu Team    
  • Torch Bearer Ministries    
  • Tribal Welfare Agency    
  • Universal Hindi Communications Centre
  • Vanapa Society
  • Volunteers For Community Mental Health
  • Women Anti Drug Association    
  • Young Lift Association    
  • Young Mizo Association Kawnveng Bilkhawthlir    
  • Zawlbuk      
  • Zo Indigenous Forum

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